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[Q] Do Regional Centers "guarantee" the investment amounts to individual investors?
No, absolutely not. No EB-5 Regional Center, Limited Partnership or any immigration attorney handling your EB-5 Project is allowed to "guarantee" the return of the investment amounts directly to individual investors. That would be not only be against EB-5 law but unethical and seriously dumb thing to do.
However, it is well-established under the EB-5 law (Matter of Izummi, a precedent AAO decision) that the Limited Partnerships can make loan(s) to a job-creating borrower-entities, and when the Limited Partnerships make loan(s) to borrower-business, that borrower can and do issue signed documentary promissory notes and/or loan agreements to the Limited Partnerships which act as lenders. That's how the loans are made in the real commercial world. In other words, commercial rules and practices of how business is done in the real world govern. However, these loan agreements or promissory notes to the Limited Partnerships are only strong as the borrowers' financial conditions are, and these are not direct guarantees to the individual investors by these borrowing companies or lending Limited Partnerships; they are promises by borrowing, job-creating company to repay the loan amount to the lending limited partnership. This is how loans are made in a real world.